Transmission electron microscopical study of olfactory epithelium of a mud-dwelling catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) shows receptor, supporting, goblet and basal cells. The receptor cells are of ciliated and microvillous type. Both ciliated and microvillous receptor cells are provided with olfactory knob. The dendrite of all the receptor cells bears many longitudinally arranged microtubules. Occurrence of the rod cell and its function is quite debatable. Specialized juctional complexes between the receptor and adjacent cells are clearly noted. The supporting cells are both ciliated and nonciliated. The ciliated supporting cells are responsible for water ventilation in the olfactory chamber as well as in the inter-lamellar spaces. This facilitates better perception of odours by the receptor cells. In addition of providing mechanical support to other cells, the nonciliated supporting cells also have a secretory function which is evident from the present study. The different stages of maturity of goblet cells are well documented. The presence of white cells in the olfactory epithelium is o very rare finding.