Bacterial extracellular polymeric substances, which are basically bacterial metabolites, have currently become a subject of great concern of modern day microbiologists and biotechnologists. Among these metabolites, bacterial exopolysaccharides or EPS, in particular, have gained a significant importance. EPS are formed by the bacteria in their late exponential or stationary phase of growth under special situations for specific purposes. They take part in the formation of bacterial biofilms. There is a great diversity in the types of EPS. Strikingly enough, a same species of bacterium can produce different types of EPS under different situations. The importance of EPS is largely because of their different applications in various industries. Now that the bacterial EPS has got the potentiality to become an upcoming tool in various futuristic applications of human benefit, the focus currently develops towards how better they can be produced in the laboratory by promoting the favorable factors for their production. While studying with different EPS forming bacteria, both the intrinsic factors like genetic configuration of the bacteria and the extrinsic factors like culture conditions under the influence of different physico-chemical parameters in order to maximize the EPS production have been taken into consideration. Both the factors have proved their worth. Hence, towards a better outcome for EPS production, it is indicated that a genetic manipulation of the bacteria should be synchronized with a proper selection of its culture condition by controlling different physico-chemical parameters. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.