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TLR4 and TNFR1 blockade dampen M1 macrophage activation and shifts them towards an M2 phenotype
R. Sawoo, R. Dey, R. Ghosh,
Published in Springer
The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis has emerged as major concern worldwide due to the pressing need to develop its effective treatment strategies which is not available yet. LPS is the major causative agent in the pathogenesis of septic shock. In macrophages, LPS interacts with cell surface TLR4 leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS), TNF-α, IL-1β production, oxidative stress and markedly activated the MAPKs and NF-kB pathway. Post cell isolation, the macrophages were subjected to administration with neutralizing antibodies to TLR4 and TNFR1 either alone or in combination prior to LPS challenge. Subsequently, we performed flow cytometric analysis along with Western blots, reactive oxygen species production, and TNF-α, IL-1β release. Outcomes suggested that the dual blockade of TLR4 and TNFR1 was indeed beneficial in shifting the LPS-induced M1 polarization towards M2. Both TLR4 and TNFR1 exhibited dependency during LPS stimulation. Furthermore, the switch towards the M2 phenotype might be responsible for the decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, NO, and superoxide anion and the simultaneous elevation in the activity level of anti-oxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT (catalase), and GSH content in the isolated peritoneal macrophages. Simultaneous blocking of both TLR4 and TNFR1 also showed reduced expression of NF-kB, JNK, and COX-2 by promoting TNFR2-mediated TNF-α signaling. The increased arginase activity further confirmed the polarization towards M2. Thus it may be inferred that dual blockade of TLR4 and TNFR1 might be an alternative therapeutic approach for regulating of sepsis in future. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
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JournalData powered by TypesetImmunologic Research
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer