Enlightened by the Caputo fractional derivative, the present study deals with a novel mathematical model of generalized thermoelasticity to investigate the transient phenomena due to the influence of magnetic field and moving heat source in a rod in the context of three-phase lag (TPL) theory of thermoelasticity. Both ends of the rod are fixed and heat insulated. Employing Laplace transform as a tool, the problem has been transformed into the space-domain and solved analytically. Finally, solutions in the real-time domain are obtained by applying the inverse Laplace transform. Numerical calculation for stress, displacement, and temperature within the rod is carried out and displayed graphically. The effect of moving heat source speed on temperature, stress, and temperature is studied. It is found from the distributions that the temperature, thermally induced displacement and stress of the rod are found to decrease at large source speed. For the better understanding of the effect of moving heat source on all the distributions, three animations are added. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.