The study was an attempt to assess how the trainee teachers belonging to the vernacular background, from West Bengal (Eastern part of India), India, improved their oral fluency in a Task-Based Language Teaching approach. Trainee teachers from a university were taught with a task-based approach for 2 months with task conditions like pre-task planning time, pair and group work, and feedback. The learners’ performance in the intervention tasks and pre-post-test were audio recorded. The findings indicated that the learners could produce fluent sentences with grammatical accuracy and elaborate utterances with reduced pauses. Furthermore, learners’ opinion on the task-based teaching and learning approach was sought with some questions, where they appreciated the TBLT approach as it allowed them to improve their speaking skills to an extent. The implications of the findings are discussed in light of the suitability of a task-based approach in the Indian context. © 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.