The effect of deoxypyridoxine on the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in male rats. Phenylbutazone oxidase and aminopyrine N-demethylase decreased in both liver and kidney of deoxypyridoxine-treated rats that received either an 18% or 8% casein diet. However, the magnitude of decrease in activities was more when the rats received an 8% casein diet. The NADPH oxidase activity remained unchanged following deoxypyridoxine treatment. The diminished activities of phenylbutazone oxidase and aminopyrine N-demethylase noted after deoxypyridoxine treatment were restored by pyridoxine supplementation. The decreased activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes in deoxypyridoxine treated rats were not reversed by thyroxine supplementation. It is suggested that pyridoxine in the form of pyridoxal phosphate might be involved in the regulation of drug-metabolizing activities. © 1984, The Japanese Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.