Food consumption, food production and food choices are socio-economically and culturally determined, continuously changing interactive processes which reflect upon a complex dynamic process of development, distribution and social justice in any economy at a given point of time. Globalisation has its distinct impact on all these three aspects of food. Economic growth is typically accompanied by improvements in a country’s food supply, both quantitative and qualitative, and a gradual reduction in nutritional deficiencies. It also brings out changes in the production, processing, distribution and marketing of food. Diets evolve over time and are influenced by factors such as income, prices, individual preferences and beliefs, cultural traditions, as well as geographical, environmental, social and economic factors. Research has shown that globalisation has a distinct impact on food productivity. The growth rate of agriculture has declined over the reform period and food grain production has shown a significant decline. What is bothersome is the mismatch between steadily declining productivity of inferior goods and the malnourished masses who live below the poverty line. The aim of this chapter is to first look into the food productivity, that is the supply side of food in the Indian context, how the basic question of what to produce is affected by the MNCs under the realities of globalisation and its consequent repercussions. On the other hand, the world is witnessing drastic changes in consumption patterns these days. The consumption of edible oils and sugar has increased drastically than they were a few decades ago. India is not an exception to this process and is witnessing what may be termed as nutrition transition. Second, the chapter aims to examine the evidence on the linkages between globalisation and these nutritional trends. The article thus tries to look into the demand aspect of food and the impact of globalisation on it. It also focuses on the determinants, economic costs and consequences of increased demand of these unhealthy foods. As a direct consequence of such consumption there is a steep rise in non-communicable diseases like diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, India showcases worst of both worlds severely undernourished as well as over fed masses. Further, third, attempt is made to locate the gaps in demand and supply chain reflected through the severe health consequences. The chapter while analysing the demand supply interface examines the cultural transition of India reflected in terms of food choices and tries to see how social justice is ensured to all in the domain of globalisation. © 2019 selection and editorial matter, Manish K. Verma.