Daily subcutaneous injection of cadmium chloride (0.3 mg/100g bw) for two weeks to normal and protein restricted (5% casein) rats shows significant decrease in 5-HT concentration in cerebellum, medulla oblongata-pons, hypothalamus, striatum-hippocampus, midbrain-thalamus-subthalamus, and cortex in both dietary regimens. No significant change occurs in concentration of ACh in cerebellum, but there is a significant increase in cortex, whereas significant decrease occurs in rest of the discrete regions of brain in both dietary conditions. Results also indicate that the intensity of cadmium effect is more evident in discrete brain regions in protein restricted dietary condition than in the normal group. The inhibitory action of Cd on both neurotransmitters has been discussed. © 1993 Humana Press Inc.