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Rosmarinic acid attenuates cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis
S JOARDAR, S DEWANJEE, S BHOWMICK, T K DUA, S DAS, , FEO V DE
Published in MDPI AG
2019
PMID: 31022990
Volume: 20
   
Issue: 8
Abstract
The present investigation was executed to reveal the protective mechanism of rosmarinic acid (RA) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. RA exhibited a concentration-dependent anti-apoptotic effect against CdCl2 in isolated mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells. Cd treatment significantly (p < 0.01) imparted oxidative stress to the renal cells via excessive ROS production, triggering NO level, NADPH oxidase activation, and impairment of cellular redox defense system. Cd-mediated oxidative stress significantly (p < 0.01) endorsed apoptosis to the murine kidney cells by triggering NF-κB/PKC-δ/TNFR2 activation. In addition, CdCl2 induced renal fibrosis by triggering TGF-β1/SMAD3/α-SMA/collagen signaling within renal cells. On the other hand, RA significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) attenuated Cd-provoked oxidative stress and associated pathological signal transduction in murine renal cells. RA treatment also could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) reciprocate Cd-mediated pathological changes in blood and urine parameters in mice. In addition, histological data supported the pharmacological findings. In silico chemometric analyses predicted the possible interactions between RA and different signal proteins and anticipated drug-likeness characteristics of RA. Hence, RA can potentially be applied as a therapeutic agent to treat Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity in future. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
About the journal
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
PublisherMDPI AG
ISSN1661-6596
Open AccessNo