Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate the applicability of the low-cost natural biosorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution and effluent from battery industry. Methods: Six different biosorbents namely rice straw, rice bran, rice husk, coconut shell, neem leaves, and hyacinth roots have been used for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in batch process. All the biosorbents were collected from local area near Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The removal efficiency was determined in batch experiments for each biosorbent. Results: The biosorbents were characterized by SEM, FTIR, surface area, and point of zero charge. The sorption kinetic data was best described by pseudo-second-order model for all the biosorbents except rice husk which followed intraparticle diffusion model. Pb(II) ions adsorption process for rice straw, rice bran, and hyacinth roots were governed predominately by film diffusion, but in the case of rice husk, it was intraparticle diffusion. Film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion were equally responsible for the biosorption process onto coconut shell and neem leaves. The values of mass transfer coefficient indicated that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from the bulk to the solid phase was quite fast for all cases. Maximum monolayer sorption capacities onto the six natural sorbents studied were estimated from the Langmuir sorption model and compared with other natural sorbents used by other researchers. The Elovich model, the calculated values of effective diffusivity, and the sorption energy calculated by using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm were indicated that the sorption process was chemical in nature. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption processes were endothermic. FTIR studies were carried out to understand the type of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) ions binding process. Regeneration of biosorbents were carried out by desorption studies using HNO3. Battery industry effluents were used for the application study to investigate applicability of the biosorbents. Conclusion: The biosorbents can be utilized as low-cost sorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewater. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.