Introduction: Under-nutrition continues to be a serious health problem among the children in India. In view of the paucity of recent attempts to classify under-nourished children satisfactorily the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) has been implemented to measure the seriousness and severity of overall under-nutrition in a population. However,there exists scanty information of the prevalence of under-nutrition among the tribal children of Odisha and India. Therefore the objective of the present study is to evaluate the overall prevalence of under-nutrition among the Bhumij children of Northern Odisha,India. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 Bhumij children aged 1 to 6 years (69 boys and 67 girls) were measured. Children were considered as underweight,stunting and wasting if their weight-for-age,height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores below -2.0 SD of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference data. Severe under-nutrition was assessed as Z-score below -3.0 SD. Results: The overall age and sex combined prevalence of stunting,underweight and wasting recorded was 32.4%,42.6% and 25% respectively,and these rates were considered as high (30-39%),very high (≥30%) and also very high (≥15%),respectively. CIAF showed a higher prevalence of under-nutrition (54.4%) i.e.,children suffering from anthropometric failure,in comparison to other three conventional indicators (stunting,underweight and wasting). Conclusions: Therefore various nutritional intervention programs can be formulated to improve the nutritional status of the children. It was established herein that CIAF is a better indicator of nutritional status than traditional measures of stunting,underweight and wasting because it differentiates overall and total anthropometric failure. © 2016,Nepal Paediatric Society (NEPAS). All rights reserved.