Intelligence testing was one of the earliest interests of psychologists in India. Adaptation of Western intelligence tests has been a focus of psychologists in the first half of the last century. Indigenous development of intelligence tests has been attempted, but diversity of language and culture, complexity of school systems, and infrastructural inadequacies have emerged as major hindrances to such development. Intelligence tests are presently used to identify disability, assess eligibility for welfare, and account for gaps in potentiality and performance in school, rehabilitation, and guidance. Attention to the upper stratum of intelligence and identification of the gifted is relatively neglected. Tests commonly used for direct intelligence assessment, and in relation to developmental problems, specific learning disability, and autism spectrum disorder, have been briefly discussed. Future efforts should be directed toward developing intelligence tests suitable for Indian culture using an information processing approach. © 2016, © 2016 International School Psychology Association.