This work constitutes a general description of the results obtained in native aquatic plant species from Portugal (South Western Europe), for the assessment of the potential for phytofiltration techniques of multielement contaminated water. Uptake patterns for metal(loid)s studied indicate the following features: Uranium accumulation in the range of 243-4979 mg/kg (DW) in Fontinalis antipyretica, Callitriche stagnalis, Callitriche hamulata, Callitriche lusitanica, and Ranunculus peltatus; Arsenic concentration from 346 to 2346 mg/kg in C. lusitanica, C. brutia, Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana, R. trichophyllus, C. stagnalis, and F. Antipyretica; Lead from 90.5 to 1104 mg/kg in R. trichophyllus, rhizomes/roots of Typha latifolia, L. minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Myriophyllum spicatum; Copper from 81.8 to 161 mg/kg in C. lusitanica, C. hamulata, R. trichophyllus, and C. stagnalis; and Zinc from 900 to 34,162 mg/kg in L. minor, Lemanea fluviatilis, C. lusitanica, C. brutia, R. trichophyllus, F. Antipyretica, and C. stagnalis. The abundance of some of these plant species, their biomass, relatively high bioproductivity, and their ability to accumulate several toxic elements collectively indicates their potential for the development of phytofiltration methodologies, either in monoculture systems or in combined systems representing natural ecosystems. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights reserved.