Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are WHO notified infective conditions that encompass a high risk of propagation and very low R&D developments. NTDs like leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and dengue are prevalent in the developing countries but are currently over spreading in the developed world. Most available medicines in these areas associate low specificity, low patient compliance and are inherently toxic. Early solutions entail through put screening of known chemical entities and pharmacokinetic developments for known compounds like that in case of amphotericin B. Nanomedicines like liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and micelles are some of the recent successes in chemotherapy of NTDs. Functionalized vesicle vaccine carriers are recently developed for clinical trials. While vector control is a powerful remedy at the pre-infection stages, biopharmaceutical developments and targetability of nanoparticles are seen as a new strategy in postinfection disease management. © 2014 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.