A major research thrust is now taking place on the generation of micro- and nanocellulose from various renewable resources for use as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. Preparation of nanocellulose from natural resources can lead to the production of biocomposites in an economic way. To achieve uniform dispersion of the cellulosic fillers in polymers and to reduce their high moisture absorption tendency, an in-situ polymerization technique can be adopted. Cellulose fibers are oft en chemically modified or surface treated with suitable chemicals. An in-situ polymerization technique can exploit the best possible effects of chemical modification, which enables formation of a chemical linkage between the cellulosic filler and the polymer during the course of polymerization. Also, the properties of the composites are further enhanced, the composites tend to become more biodegradable in composting environment, becoming more environmentally friendly, and their moisture absorption tendency is significantly reduced. © 2015 by Scrivener Publishing LLC. All rights reserved.