The most important and well-known medicinal plant among ~400 species of the genus Aloe is Aloe vera. It is widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Identification and assessment of genetic relationship among the populations and cultivars is needed for conservation and sustainable utilization of this commercially important plant. DNA fingerprinting with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) of ribosomal DNA sequence analysis were carried out to assess the genetic diversity among populations of Aloe vera collected from geographically different four districts of West Bengal and Jodhpur, Rajasthan. RAPD profiles yielded 158 amplicons showing ~87.34% polymorphism. Analyses of ITS sequences showed that in contrast to ITS2, the length and %GC content (53.6–77.3%) of ITS1 varied within populations. Multiple sequence alignment data reveal that substitutions, insertions, and deletions have arisen at various positions in the ITS regions suggesting polymorphism. A 5′-GGCGCGATGGGCGCCAAGGAA-3′ sequence in ITS1 is conserved in all populations, except AvS4. RAPD dendrogram and topologies of the NJ, Parsimony and ML tree generated from ITS1 sequence revealed that there is a close genetic similarity among AvS1, AvS4, and AvS7 populations. These genetic studies may contribute to plant improvement programs of A. vera. © 2016 Società Botanica Italiana.