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Micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment and their accumulation in mangroves of Indian Sundarban
M BAKSHI, S S RAM, S GHOSH, A CHAKRABORTY, M SUDARSHAN,
Published in Springer International Publishing
2017
PMID: 28425071
Volume: 189
   
Issue: 5
Abstract
This work describes the micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment and bioaccumulation of those elements in different mangrove species of the Indian Sundarbans. The potential ecological risk due to such elemental load on this mangrove-dominated habitat is also discussed. The concentrations of elements in mangrove leaves and sediments were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Sediment quality and potential ecological risks were assessed from the calculated indices. Our data reflects higher concentration of elements, e.g., Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb, in the sediment, as compared to that reported by earlier workers. Biological concentration factors for K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in different mangroves indicated gradual elemental bioaccumulation in leaf tissues (0.002–1.442). Significant variation was observed for elements, e.g., Ni, Mn, and Ca, in the sediments of all the sites, whereas in the plants, significant variation was found for P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. This was mostly due to the differences in uptake and accumulation potential of the plants. Various sediment quality indices suggested the surface sediments to be moderately contaminated and suffering from progressive deterioration. Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Ni showed higher enrichment factors (0.658–1.469), contamination factors (1.02–2.7), and geo-accumulation index (0.043–0.846) values. The potential ecological risk index values considering Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found to be within “low ecological risk” category (20.04–24.01). However, Cr and Ni in the Sundarban mangroves exceeded the effect range low and probable effect level limits. Strong correlation of Zn with Fe and K was observed, reflecting their similar transportation and accumulation process in both sediment and plant systems. The plant–sediment elemental correlation was found to be highly non-linear, suggesting role of some physiological and edaphic factors in the accumulation process. Overall, the study of micro-spatial distribution of elements can act as a useful tool for determining health of estuarine ecosystem. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer International Publishing
ISSN0167-6369
Open AccessNo