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Mechanism of inducible nitric-oxide synthase dimerization inhibition by novel pyrimidine imidazoles
L NAGPAL, M M HAQUE, A SAHA, N MUKHERJEE, A GHOSH, B C RANU, D J STUEHR,
Published in AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC
2013
PMID: 23696643
Volume: 288
   
Issue: 27
Pages: 19685 - 19697
Abstract
Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) has been etiologically linked to several inflammatory, immunological, and neurodegenerative diseases. As dimerization of NOS is required for its activity, several dimerization inhibitors, including pyrimidine imidazoles, are being evaluated for therapeutic inhibition of iNOS. However, the precise mechanism of their action is still unclear. Here, we examined the mechanism of iNOS inhibition by a pyrimidine imidazole core compound and its derivative (PID), having low cellular toxicity and high affinity for iNOS, using rapid stoppedflow kinetic, gel filtration, and spectrophotometric analysis. PID bound to iNOS heme to generate an irreversible PID-iNOS monomer complex that could not be converted to active dimers by tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) and L-arginine (Arg). We utilized the iNOS oxygenase domain (iNOSoxy) and two monomeric mutants whose dimerization could be induced (K82AiNOSoxy) or not induced (D92AiNOSoxy) withH4B to elucidate the kinetics of PID binding to the iNOS monomer and dimer. We observed that the apparent PID affinity for the monomer was 11 times higher than the dimer. PID binding rate was also sensitive to H4B and Arg site occupancy. PID could also interact with nascent iNOS monomers in iNOS-synthesizing RAW cells, to prevent their post-translational dimerization, and it also caused irreversible monomerization of active iNOS dimers thereby accomplishing complete physiological inhibition of iNOS. Thus, our study establishes PID as a versatile iNOS inhibitor and therefore a potential in vivo tool for examining the causal role of iNOS in diseases associated with its overexpression as well as therapeutic control of such diseases. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
About the journal
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
PublisherAMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC
ISSN0021-9258
Open AccessNo