The present study undertaken in the largest coastal lagoon of Asia, Chilika, deals with monthly monitoring of benthic foraminifera assemblages in terms of distribution pattern, diversity and variations in taxonomic composition spanning over a period of 20 months. In total, 13 species of benthic foraminifera represented by eight families were identified in the lagoon. The stations in the Southern sector of the lagoon showed relatively low foraminifera abundance yet high diversity whereas higher abundance and lower diversity were observed in stations located in the Central sector which indicates the spatial patterning of the assemblage. Live foraminifera abundance was sparse in the study area indicating the stressed nature of the lagoon environment. The dissolved nutrient concentration of bottom water reflected significant seasonal variation. The stressed nature of the lagoon is further indicated by the dominance of the genus Ammonia across the inner sectors of the lagoon, a genus known to inhabit impacted habitats. Overall these data can serve as a baseline proxy for understanding palaeontological assemblages of foraminifera in similar shallow-water settings globally.