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Intracellular anti-leishmanial effect of spergulin-A, a triterpenoid saponin of Glinus oppositifolius
S. Banerjee, N. Mukherjee, R.L. Gajbhiye, S. Mishra, P. Jaisankar, , K.D. Saha
Published in Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Volume: 12
Pages: 2933 - 2942
Background: Many of present chemotherapeutics are inadequate and also resistant against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an immunosuppressive ailment caused by Leishmania donovani. Despite the interest in plant-based drug development, no antileishmanial drugs from plant source are currently available. Glinus oppositifolius had been reported in favor of being immune modulators along with other traditional uses. Novel anti-VL therapies can rely on host immune-modulation with associated leishmanicidal action. Objective: Discovery of novel plant-based antileishmanial compound from G. oppositifolius having permissible side effects. Methods: With this rationale, an n-BuOH fraction of the methanolic extract of the plant and obtained triterpenoid saponin Spergulin-A were evaluated against acellular and intracellular L. donovani. Immunostimulatory activity of them was confirmed by elevated TNF-α and extracellular NO production from treated MФs and was found nontoxic to the host cells. Identification and structure confirmation for isolated Spergulin-A was performed by ESI-MS,13C, and1H NMR. Results: Spergulin-A was found ineffective against the acellular forms while, against the intracellular parasites at 30 μg/mL, the reduction was 92.6% after 72 hrs. Spergulin-A enhanced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) release and changes in Gp91-phox, i-NOS, and pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines elaborated its intracellular anti-leishmanial activity. Conclusion: The results supported that G. oppositifolius and Spergulin-A can potentiate new lead molecules for the development of alternative drugs against VL. © 2019 Banerjee et al.
About the journal
JournalInfection and Drug Resistance
PublisherDove Medical Press Ltd.