Infraspecific morphological variation in Gentiana macrauchena C. Marquand (Gentianaceae) is discussed. The name Gentiana incompta Harry Sm. is lectotypified. Gentiana macrauchena, previously known as a Chinese endemic species, is recorded in India for the first time. The present discovery constitutes an extension of its known range towards the west in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. A detailed description, illustrations, and notes on the morphological variation of characters of the species are provided. An IUCN conservation status in India and the world is proposed based on field observations and literature including herbarium studies. Comments are also made on the spatial distribution of the species. © 2015 College of Life Science. All rights reserved.