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Increased host ATP efflux and its conversion to extracellular adenosine is crucial for establishing Leishmania infection
M. Basu, P. Gupta, A. Dutta, K. Jana,
Published in Company of Biologists Ltd
2020
PMID: 32079656
Volume: 133
   
Issue: 7
Abstract
Intracellular survival of Leishmania donovani demands rapid production of host ATP for its sustenance. However, a gradual decrease in intracellular ATP in spite of increased glycolysis suggests ATP efflux during infection. Accordingly, upon infection, we show here that ATP is exported and the major exporter was pannexin-1, leading to raised extracellular ATP levels. Extracellular ATP shows a gradual decrease after the initial increase, and analysis of cell surface ATP-degrading enzymes revealed induction of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73. Ectonucleotidase-mediated ATP degradation leads to increased extracellular adenosine (eADO), and inhibition of CD39 and CD73 in infected cells decreased adenosine concentration and parasite survival, documenting the importance of adenosine in infection. Inhibiting adenosine uptake by cells did not affect parasite survival, suggesting that eADO exerts its effect through receptor-mediated signalling. We also show that Leishmania induces the expression of adenosine receptors A2AR and A2BR, both of which are important for anti-inflammatory responses. Treating infected BALB/c mice with CD39 and CD73 inhibitors resulted in decreased parasite burden and increased host-favourable cytokine production. Collectively, these observations indicate that infection-induced ATP is exported, and after conversion into adenosine, propagates infection via receptor-mediated signalling. © 2020. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
About the journal
JournalJournal of Cell Science
PublisherCompany of Biologists Ltd
ISSN00219533