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Incidence, risk factors, and viral etiology of community-acquired acute lower respiratory tract infection among older adults in rural north India
R. Kumar, L. Dar, R. Amarchand, , K.E. Lafond, D.R. Purakayastha, R. Kumar, A. Choudekar, G. Gopal, S. DhakadShow More
Published in NLM (Medline)
PMID: 33880179
Volume: 11
Background: There are limited data on incidence, risk factors and etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We established a cohort of community dwelling older adults ≥60 years and conducted weekly follow-up for acute respiratory infections (ARI) during 2015-2017. Nurses assessed ARI cases for LRTI, collecting combined nasal/throat swabs from all LRTI cases and an equal number of age- and sex-matched asymptomatic neighbourhood controls. Swabs were tested for influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and parainfluenza viruses (PIV) using polymerase chain reaction. LRTI and virus-specific LRTI incidence was calculated per 1000 person-years. We estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) for risk factors using Poisson regression and calculated etiologic fractions (EF) using adjusted odds ratios for detection of viral pathogens in LRTI cases vs controls. Results: We followed 1403 older adults for 2441 person-years. LRTI and LRTI-associated hospitalization incidences were 248.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 229.3-268.8) and 12.7 (95% CI = 8.9-18.1) per 1000 person-years. Persons with pre-existing chronic bronchitis as compared to those without (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 4.7, 95% CI = 3.9-5.6); aged 65-74 years (IRR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.0) and ≥75 years (IRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4-2.4) as compared to 60-64 years; and persons in poorest wealth quintile (IRR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8); as compared to those in wealthiest quintile were at higher risk for LRTI. Virus was detected in 10.1% of LRTI cases, most commonly influenza (3.8%) and RSV (3.0%). EF for RSV and influenza virus was 83.9% and 83.6%, respectively. Conclusion: In this rural cohort of older adults, the incidence of LRTI was substantial. Chronic bronchitis was an important risk factor; influenza virus and RSV were major viral pathogens. Copyright © 2021 by the Journal of Global Health. All rights reserved.
About the journal
JournalJournal of global health
PublisherNLM (Medline)