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In Vitro Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Ciprofloxacin or Azithromycin in Staphylococcus aureus-Stimulated Murine Macrophages are Beneficial in the Presence of Cytochalasin D
Published in Springer New York LLC
PMID: 25429758
Volume: 38
Issue: 3
Pages: 1050 - 1069
We hypothesized that if internalization of Staphylococcus aureus could be blocked by using cytochalasin D (an inhibitor of phagocytosis and phagolysosome fusion), then the intracellular entry and survival of the pathogen in host’s phagocytic cells recruited to the inflammatory site can be restricted. At the same time, if we use antimicrobial agents (e.g., ciprofloxacin and azithromycin) having potent intracellular and extracellular microbicidal activity against the bacterium that have not entered into the phagosome and remains adhered to the phagocytic cell membrane, then they can be eradicated from the site of infection without compromising the host cell. To validate this, role of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and azithromycin (AZM) in eliminating S. aureus by suppressing the phagocytic activity of macrophages with cytochalasin D before infection was investigated. CIP and AZM were used either alone or in combination with cytochalasin D. Supernatant and lysate obtained from the culture of macrophages were used for quantification of reactive oxygen species, lysozymes, antioxidant enzymes, and cytokines produced. Azithromycin was better than ciprofloxacin in combination with cytochalasin D for eradicating S. aureus and regulating cytokine release. Further studies are required for ensuring proper delivery of this combination at the site of infection. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetInflammation
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer New York LLC
Open AccessNo