Arterial blood oxygen saturation, body fluid and hematological parameters were studied in control, naproxen (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor)-treated control, altitude-exposed, and naproxen-treated altitude-exposed rats after intermittent exposure of 8 h/d for 6 consecutive days to a simulated high altitude of 6, 100 m (barometric pressure 348 ± 3 mmHg). Arterial blood oxygen saturation was reduced in altitude-exposed rats, but increased significantly to near control level in naproxen-treated rats. On the other hand, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocytes increased in altitude-exposed rats, but naproxen prevented this increase. The red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit ratio were reduced significantly in drug-treated altitude-exposed rats when compared to the altitude-exposed group (without drug). Red cell mass was increased in the altitude-exposed group in comparison with control. Both red cell mass and mean corpuscular volume of altitude-exposed rats were shifted towards the control value when they were treated with naproxen. Drug-treated high altitude-exposure reduced the thiocyanate space, intracellular fluid volume and total body water content compared to drug-treated control rats. On the other hand, thiocyanate space and total body water content were increased significantly in drug-treated control rats in comparison with the control group.