Climate change has become a serious global problem and its ramifications on agricultural practices are threatening global food security. Changes in temperature, precipitation, rainfall pattern, soil degradation, pest and pathogen behaviors have serious implications on agricultural systems throughout the globe. Already the effects of global warming are evident in many parts of the world, which has reduced agricultural outputs especially in the economically backward nations. Severe droughts, flash floods due to unseasonal rainfall, salinization of arable lands have negated agricultural productivity. In this chapter, we have tried to present the effects of global climate change and its effect on the cultivation of a pulse crop, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Mungbean is an important legume crop in terms of both food value and its beneficial role in biological nitrogen fixation and soil fertility. It is primarily cultivated in the developing nations of Asia, especially India, Pakistan, China, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. Its importance in food security globally is unconditionally important as it provides essential dietary protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals, cheaply to the poorest of the poor. Changes in the environmental factors pertaining to the cultivation of mungbean can cause further lowering of productivity and production of mungbean, which already faces several challenges in its cultivation. © 2017 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.