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Geochemistry of two stratigraphically-related ultramafic (komatiite) layers from the Neoarchean Sigegudda greenstone terrane, Western Dharwar Craton, India: Evidence for compositional diversity in Archean mantle plumes
Volume: 177
Pages: 120 - 135
Two compositionally different ultramafic units are present in the Neoarchean Sigegudda greenstone terrane, Western Dharwar Craton, India. These ultramafic units occur in the same volcano-sedimentary sequence and are separated by a fault-bounded volcanic arc association. Because of deformation and amphibolite facies metamorphism, the primary igneous textures have been extensively modified in both ultramafic units. Given their spatial and temporal association with sedimentary and volcanic rocks and high MgO contents (12-29wt.%), these ultramafic rocks are interpreted as metamorphosed komatiites and komatiitic basalts. Field relationships and rock types indicate that the lower section of the Sigegudda volcano-sedimentary sequence was deposited in a peri-cratonic, continental rift setting. The lower ultramafic unit is characterized by 12.4-29.6wt.% MgO, Mg#=76-91, and 526-1150ppm Ni. The upper ultramafic unit is overall more magnesian and compositionally restricted: MgO=21.6-25.9wt.%, Mg#=86-89, and Ni=610-1000ppm. The lower unit features a combination of relatively elevated TiO2 (0.40-0.90wt.%), Al2O3/TiO2≤the chondritic ratio of 21, and (Gd/Yb)N ratios >1; these are Ti-enriched komatiites reported for the first time from greenstone belts in the Dharwar Craton. The upper unit is compositionally comparable to Al-undepleted komatiites and characterized by Al2O3/TiO2≥21, LREE-depletion coupled with near-flat chondrite-normalized HREE patterns. Geochemical data indicate that the Sigegudda komatiites and komatiitic basalts were variably contaminated by either continental crust or sub-continental lithospheric mantle, or both. The geochemical differences between the two units are explained by variable depths and degrees of partial melting. The Ti-enriched lower unit appears to have been formed through lower degrees of partial melting at depths ≥90km, whereas the Al-undepleted upper unit was generated by higher degrees of partial melting at depths ≤90km. Field relationships and geochemical characteristics of the Sigegudda komatiites can be explained by a geodynamic model in which the stratigraphically lower Ti-enriched komatiites were erupted from a mantle plume onto a rifting continental margin, whereas the stratigraphically upper Al-undepleted komatiites originated from a younger mantle plume and erupted onto a volcanic arc sequence that accreted to the rifted continental margin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
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