Here, we have proposed a statistical framework based on a novel bat algorithm inspired particle swarm optimisation algorithm for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data. The recurrent neural network formalism has been implemented to extract the underlying dynamics from time series microarray datasets accurately. The proposed swarm intelligence framework has been used for optimising the parameters of the recurrent neural network model. Preliminary research with the proposed methodology has been done on a small, artificial network and the experimental (in vivo) microarray data of the SOS DNA repair network of Escherichia coli. Results obtained suggest that the proposed methodology can infer the underlying network structures with a better degree of success. © 2015 IEEE.