In this article, the constitutive relations and the governing equations are derived for nonlocal thermoelastic solid in the presence of diffusion. The free vibration of a thermoelastic diffusive cylinder is investigated within the framework of the above newly derived model. Time-harmonic vibration is used to transform the governing equations into a system of ordinary differential equations. The frequency equation is taken under investigation for the survival of a range of possible modes in compact form for traction-free thermal boundary conditions: thermally insulated and isothermal boundary conditions. To explore the vibration analysis from frequency equations, we apply a numerical iteration technique for generating numerical data by taking assistance of the Matlab software. The numerically computed and simulated results for the frequency shift, natural frequency, and the thermoelastic damping are presented graphically. The effect of nonlocality on the above quantities is observed and shown graphically. © 2020, © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.