The ancient Ayurvedic text Charak samhita of Indian medecine prescribes a specific group of ten plants having antipyretic properties with minimal side-effects. The aqueous extract of polyherbal ayurvedic preparation PD-10 (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceac), Cissampelos pareira L. (Menispermaceae), fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Combretaceae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae), Grewia asiatica L. (Tillaceae), Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae) and granules of Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae)) exhibited significant antipyretic-analgesic properties during rodent experiments while exhibiting low toxicity and ulcerogenicity. The presence of flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols in this extract prompted this double-blind, randomized clinical trial on 60 patients using Aspirinv (60 mg kg-1 body weight per day) as the standard drug for comparison. The primary outcome measured was reduction in body temperature, while the secondary outcomes measured were prevalence of associated symptoms of fever and routine blood and urine parameters. A representative sample of patients was also studied for reduction in the level of Prostaglandin (PGE2). The clinical trial showed that fever was rapidly and substantially reduced after oral administration of PD-10 and this antipyretic effect was more sustained and highly significant (p<0.001) when compared to Aspirin. Many associated symptoms of fever also exhibited significant reductions when PD-10 was administered as compared to Aspirin. Prostaglandin levels also registered a substantial decrease during treatment with the test drug. © 2008 Asian Network for Scientific Information.