The antioxidant property of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus roots and its ether-soluble, ethyl acetate-soluble, and aqueous fractions were investigated by various in vitro assays. The root extracts showed higher DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity. Among all the samples, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction demonstrated highest radical scavenging activity and total phenolics content. Twenty-eight different phenolic compounds were identified by LCMS/MS analysis of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The majority of the compounds were found to exist as their glycosides, and many of these were gallic acid derivatives. Free epicatechin and gallic acid were also identified in the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The present investigation suggested that P. amarus root is a potent antioxidant and can be used for the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress. © 2013 American Chemical Society.