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Estimation of community-level influenza-associated illness in a low resource rural setting in India
, V. Gupta, F.S. Dawood, S. Broor, K.E. Lafond, M.S. Chadha, S.K. Rai, A. Krishnan
Published in Public Library of Science
PMID: 29698505
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Objective To estimate rates of community-level influenza-like-illness (ILI) and influenza-associated ILI in rural north India. Methods During 2011, we conducted household-based healthcare utilization surveys (HUS) for any acute medical illness (AMI) in preceding 14days among residents of 28villages of Ballabgarh, in north India. Concurrently, we conducted clinic-based surveillance (CBS) in the area for AMI episodes with illness onset 3days and collected nasal and throat swabs for influenza virus testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Retrospectively, we applied ILI case definition (measured/reported fever and cough) to HUS and CBS data. We attributed 14days of risk-time per person surveyed in HUS and estimated community ILI rate by dividing the number of ILI cases in HUS by total risk-time. We used CBS data on influenza positivity and applied it to HUS-based community ILI rates by age, month, and clinic type, to estimate the community influenza-associated ILI rates. Findings The HUS of 69,369 residents during the year generated risk-time of 3945 person-years (p-y) and identified 150 (5%, 95%CI: 4–6) ILI episodes (38 ILI episodes/1,000 p-y; 95% CI 32–44). Among 1,372 ILI cases enrolled from clinics, 126 (9%; 95% CI 8–11) had laboratory-confirmed influenza (A (H3N2) = 72; B = 54). After adjusting for age, month, and clinic type, overall influenza-associated ILI rate was 4.8/1,000 p-y; rates were highest among children <5 years (13; 95% CI: 4–29) and persons60 years (11; 95%CI: 2–30). Conclusion We present a novel way to use HUS and CBS data to generate estimates of community burden of influenza. Although the confidence intervals overlapped considerably, higher point estimates for burden among young children and older adults shows the utility for exploring the value of influenza vaccination among target groups. © This an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
About the journal
JournalPLoS ONE
PublisherPublic Library of Science