Till date knowledge regarding the effects of high dietary magnesium on thyroid gland is incomprehensive though certain epidemiological studies reported development of thyroid gland dysfunctions in people with chronic exposure to hard water (especially with high magnesium) despite sufficient iodine consumption. The present study is to explore the effects of chronic high dietary magnesium exposure on thyroid morphology and functional status. Male adult albino Wistar strain rats were treated with graded doses of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g %) for 60 days and changes in different thyroid parameters were investigated. Significantly stimulated thyroid peroxidase and Na+-K+-ATPase and altered idothyronine 5/- deiodinase type I activities, enhanced serum thyroxine (T4) (both total and free), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone with decreased free T3 levels and T3/T4 ratio (T3:T4) along with enlargement of thyroid with associated histopathological changes were observed in the treated groups. The results clearly confirm that chronic high dietary magnesium exposure causes potential thyroid disruption as reported in earlier epidemiological studies.