Quantitative evaluation of spermatogenesis at stage VII of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and radioimmunoassay of plasma testosterone were performed in adult Wistar rats after intraventricular injection of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT). The rats were killed 2, 10 and 21 days after injection. Brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and plasma testosterone levels were found to be significantly lower in all rats treated with 5,6-DHT. A significant reduction in step 7 spermatid count was also observed after 10 and 21 days. Supplementation with human chorionic gonadotrophin for 21 days in rats injected with 5,6-DHT partially prevented the step 7 spermatid degeneration and increased testosterone levels without producing any effect on brain concentrations of 5-HT. These results suggest that changes in testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are secondary to pituitary gonadotrophin release which, in turn, is under the influence of brain 5-HT neurones.