Signaling by the interleukin-36 receptor (IL-36R) is linked to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. However, the regulation of IL-36R signaling is poorly understood. Activation of IL-36R signaling in cultured cells results in an increased polyubiquitination of the receptor subunit, IL-1Rrp2. Treatment with deubiquitinases shows that the receptor subunit of IL-36R, IL-1Rrp2, is primarily polyubiquitinated at the K63 position, which is associated with endocytic trafficking and signal transduction. A minor amount of ubiquitination is at the K48 position that is associated with protein degradation. A focused siRNA screen identified RNF125, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to ubiquitinate IL-1Rrp2 upon activation of IL-36R signaling while not affecting the activated IL-1 receptor. Knockdown of RNF125 decreases signal transduction by the IL-36R. Overexpression of RNF125 in HEK293T cells activates IL-36R signaling and increases the ubiquitination of IL-1Rrp2 and its subsequent turnover. RNF125 can coimmunoprecipitate with the IL-36R, and it traffics with IL-1Rrp2 from the cell surface to lysosomes. Mutations of Lys568 and Lys569 in the C-terminal tail of IL-1Rrp2 decrease ubiquitination by RNF125 and increase the steady-state levels of IL-1Rrp2. These results demonstrate that RNF125 has multiple regulatory roles in the signaling, trafficking, and turnover of the IL-36R. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.