The trinucleotide repeat d(CXG) (X = A, C, G or T) is the most common sequence causing repeat expansion disorders. The formation of non-canonical structures, such as hairpin structures with X-X mismatches, has been proposed to affect gene expression and regulation, which are important in pathological studies of these devastating neurological diseases. However, little information is available regarding the thermodynamics of the repeat sequence under crowded cellular conditions where many non-canonical structures such as G-quadruplexes are highly stabilized, while duplexes are destabilised. In this study, we investigated the different stabilities of X-X mismatches in the context of internal d(CXG) self-complementary sequences in an environment with a high concentration of cosolutes to mimic the crowding conditions in cells. The stabilities of full-matched duplexes and duplexes with A-A, G-G, and T-T mismatched base pairs under molecular crowding conditions were notably decreased compared to under dilute conditions. However, the stability of the DNA duplex with a C-C mismatch base pair was only slightly destabilised. Investigating different stabilities of X-X mismatches in d(CXG) sequences is important for improving our understanding of the formation and transition of multiple non-canonical structures in trinucleotide repeat diseases, and may provide insights for pathological studies and drug development. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.