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Dexamethasone along with ciprofloxacin modulates S. aureus induced microglial inflammation via glucocorticoid (GC)-GC receptor-mediated pathway
Published in Academic Press
PMID: 32360190
Volume: 145
Microglial inflammation is the hallmark of S. aureus induced brain abscesses. Conventional antibiotic therapy could not regulate inflammation and the use of steroids in CNS infection remained controversial. To address this issue the effect of dexamethasone along with ciprofloxacin on microglial inflammation has been attempted both in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) opened and blocked condition. We have investigated the effects of ciprofloxacin (0.24 μg/ml, pre-treatment) and dexamethasone (150 nM, pre-treatment) in combination with murine microglia infected with S. aureus for 30, 60 and 90 min by either keeping GR opened or blocked with GR antagonist RU486. Alterations in cellular motility, intracellular killing assay, free radical production, antioxidant enzyme activities, corticosterone, and cytokine levels were determined. The expressions of TLR-2, GR, and other inflammatory markers were determined in terms of this combinatorial treatment. Combination treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bacterial burden of microglia only when GR remained open and effectively suppressed S. aureus induced oxidative stress by augmenting SOD and catalase enzyme activity and suppressing other pro-inflammatory markers at 90 min. Arginase activity, a critical determinant of microglial polarization was found to be higher after treatment at 60 and 90 min. This situation was reversed when this combination treatment was applied by keeping GR blocked using GR antagonist RU486. Therefore, it can be concluded that combination treatment of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone could regulate S. aureus induced microglial activation, in the presence of functional GR via utilizing glucocorticoid (GC)-GR pathway and ultimately confers protection to the host from brain inflammation. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
About the journal
JournalMicrobial Pathogenesis
PublisherAcademic Press