Detailed karyotype studies have been carried out on 15 different species and varieties belonging to 7 genera of Bromeliaceae, viz. Ananas, Bilbergia, Caraguata, Cryptanthus, Dyckia, Neoregelia and Pitcairnia. Although gross homogeneity in the karyotype among the members of the 7 genera is noticed, yet a critical analysis shows that each species and variety is characterised by the distinctive karyotype of its own, particularly in nature of secondary constriction-so structural alteration of chromosomes has been the prime factor in evolution within the family. Out of the 4 tribes within this family, in Tillandsieae, the prevalent chromosome series is 8 or 16; in Bromelieae it is 9, 18 and 25 and in Pitcairnieae it is 25. It has been suggested that 8 represents the basic set for this family from which other numbers might have been derived. On the basis of past report and present investigations a rearrangement of different tribes is suggested-Tillandsieae with its basic set of 8 should represent primitive whereas Pitcairnieae with a series of 25 forms the present climax of evolution. The intermediate stages are possibly represented by Bromelieae some of which are common to Tillandsieae and others with Pitcairnieae. © 1971, Japan Mendel Society, International Society of Cytology. All rights reserved.