Thirteen taxa of fossil dicotyledonous woods are described from the Tipam Sandstone (Mio-Pliocene) and Dupi Tila Formations (Plio-Pliestocene) of Bangladesh. Their anatomical characters suggest affinities to Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Clusiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae and Moraceae. These fossil woods demonstrate a high familial and generic similarity with the extant floras of Southern Asia. This floristic link provides support to the hypothesis that the Neogene-Quarternary landscape was dominated by tropical to subtropical, semi-evergreen to evergreen forest, thriving under warm climatic conditions and high precipitation. The vegetation would have been similar to that of today but possibly more diverse. © 2012 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.