A comparative investigation of 99 normotensive and 111 hypertensive Bengalee Hindu elderly men (aged 55 years and above ) of Kalighat, South Calcutta, India, was undertaken to study differences in levels of adiposity, body fat distribution and body composition between these two groups. Results revealed that there were significant differences between normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) subjects in the mean values for weight (p < 0.05), body mass index (BMI, p < 0.01); waist (p < 0.001) and hip circumferences (p < 0.05); waist-hip ratio (WHR, p < 0.001), conicity index (CI, p < 0.01) and fat free mass (FFRM, p < 0.001). Percentile distributions for all these variables and indices showed consistently higher values among the HT patients as compared with NT subjects. However, the frequency of obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was similar (NT = 6.1%, HT = 11.7%) in both groups. Thus, these results indicated that there existed significant differences in central adiposity and FFM between NT and HT subjects although their level of obesity was similar. Hypertensive individuals have significantly enhanced levels of central body fat distribution.