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Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone in combination attenuate S. aureus induced brain abscess via neuroendocrine-immune interaction of TLR-2 and glucocorticoid receptor leading to behavioral improvement
Published in Elsevier B.V.
2021
Volume: 97
   
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus induced brain abscess is a critical health concern throughout the developing world. The conventional surgical intervention could not regulate the abscess-induced brain inflammation. Thus further study over the alternative therapeutic strategy for treating a brain abscess is of high priority. The resident glial cells recognize the invading S. aureus by their cell surface Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was known for its immunosuppressive effects. In this study, an attempt had been taken to utilize the functional relationship or cross-talking between TLR-2 and GR during the pathogenesis of brain abscesses. Here, the combination of an antibiotic (i.e. ciprofloxacin) and dexamethasone was used to regulate the brain inflammation either in TLR-2 or GR blocking condition. We were also interested to figure out the possible impact of alternative therapy on behavioral impairments. The results indicated that combination treatment during TLR-2 blockade significantly reduced the bacterial burden and abscess area score in the infected brain. However, marked improvements were observed in anxiety, depression-like behavior, and motor co-ordination. The combination treatment after TLR-2 blocking effectively scavenged free radicals (H2O2, superoxide anion, and NO) through modulating antioxidant enzyme activities that ultimately control S. aureus induced glial reactivity possibly via up-regulating GR expression. The exogenous dexamethasone might regulate the GR expression in the brain by increasing the corticosterone concentration and the GC-GR mediated signaling. Therefore, this in-vivo study demonstrates the possible regulatory mechanism of bacterial brain abscess that involved TLR-2 and GR as a part of neuroendocrine-immune interaction. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetInternational Immunopharmacology
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier B.V.
ISSN15675769