The broad objective of this chapter is to outline the current scenario related to child protection in India. The chapter clearly highlights the definition of child abuse and neglect (CAN) used in different legal measures in India and describes the strategies and approaches for combating the problem and their advantages and disadvantages. The Government of India has created a new ministry called The Ministry of Women and Child Development for ushering and implementing a prevention and intervention program for protection of child rights. Further impetus to CAN has come from the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act 2005 and formation of the National Commission for Protection of the Child Rights in subsequent years; all the States and Union Territories in India are in the process of setting up of State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights. Regarding reporting and redressal of CAN issues, laws like Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act 2000 (amended in 2006) are implemented across the country along with a number of social measures. In general, over population resulting in poor service delivery, poverty, illiteracy, abandonment of children, poor reporting, cultural beliefs and practices pertaining to parenting style and child development are the biggest challenges in addressing the issue of child abuse and neglect in India. Although the main problem lies with the implementation of the laws in reality, in the truest sense, it is expected that close monitoring of the programs will change the situation over time. © 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.