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Cause and effect of melittin-induced pore formation: A computational approach
PMID: 19754202
Volume: 25
Issue: 20
Pages: 12235 - 12242
Melittin embedded in a palmitoyl oleyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer at a high peptide/lipid ratio (1:30) was simulated in the presence of explicit water and ions. The simulation results indicate the incipience of an ion-permeable water pore through collective membrane perturbation by bound peptides. The positively charged residues of melittin not only act as "anchors" but also disrupt the membrane, leading to cell lysis.Adetailed analysis of the lipid tail order parameter profile depicts localized membrane perturbation. The lipids in the vicinity of the aqueous cavity adopt a tilted conformation, which allows local bilayer thinning. The prepore thus formed can be considered as the melittin-induced structural defects in the bilayer membrane. Because of the strong cationic nature, the melittin-induced prepore exhibits selectivity toward anions over cations. As Cl - ions entered into the prepore, they are electrostatically entrapped by positively charged residues located at its wall. The confined motion of the Cl - ions in the membrane interior is obvious from calculated diffusion coefficients. Moreover, reorientation of the local lipids occurs in such a way that few lipid heads along with peptide helices can line the surface of the penetrating aqueous phase. The flipping of lipids argued in favor of melittininduced toroidal pore over a barrel-stave mechanism. Thus, our result provides atomistic level details of the mechanism of membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptide melittin. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
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