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Carnosic acid attenuates cadmium induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress, promoting Nrf2/HO-1 signalling and impairing TGF-β1/Smad/collagen IV signalling
S. Das, S. Dewanjee, T.K. Dua, S. Joardar, P. Chakraborty, S. Bhowmick, , S. Bhattacharjee, V. De Feo
Published in MDPI AG
2019
PMID: 31752142
Volume: 24
   
Issue: 22
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) imparts nephrotoxicity via triggering oxidative stress and pathological signal transductions in renal cells. The present study was performed to explore the protective mechanism of carnosic acid (CA), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound, against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-provoked nephrotoxicity employing suitable in vitro and in vivo assays. CA (5 μM) exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect against CdCl2 (40 μM) in normal kidney epithelial (NKE) cells evidenced from cell viability, image, and flow cytometry assays. In this study, CdCl2 treatment enhanced oxidative stress by triggering free radical production, suppressing the endogenous redox defence system, and inhibiting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation inNKE cells andmouse kidneys. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly endorsed apoptosis and fibrosis via activation of apoptotic and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/collagen IV signalling pathways, respectively. In contrast, CA treatment significantly attenuated Cd-provoked nephrotoxicity via inhibiting free radicals, endorsing redox defence, suppressing apoptosis, and inhibiting fibrosis in renal cells in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In addition, CA treatment significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) restored blood and urine parameters to near-normal levels in mice. Histological findings further confirmed the protective role of CA against Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity. Molecular docking predicted possible interactions between CA and Nrf2/TGF-β1/Smad/collagen IV. Hence, CA was found to be a potential therapeutic agent to treat Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity. © 2019 by the authors.
About the journal
JournalMolecules
PublisherMDPI AG
ISSN14203049
Open AccessNo