We review the recent developments of structural geology in India, emphasizing the studies on brittle and ductile deformations in rocks. The Himalayan-Tibetan Mountain system has now become a focal point of tectonic studies, often leading to debatable, but exciting ideas and hypotheses. We provide a glimpse of the Indian contributions towards understanding of the structural processes, such as sequential thrusting, tectonic-surface process interactions and ductile extrusion in the Himalayan range. The Indian craton is crisscrossed by several continental-scale shear zones, marked by intense sheared rocks and intrusives. Some of these shear zones have reactivated later, giving rise to pseudotachylites implying generation of high frictional heat. We present a highlight of the work on these major ductile shear zones. © Printed in India.