Malnutrition is a serious problem present in varying proportion in developing countries and is quite enhanced in Indian context. In spite of several initiatives and policy interventions being taken up by Government of India, the problem of under- nutrition is still persisting in Indian scenario. This problem of under -nutrition not only impedes the cognitive and psychological development ofa child but stands to be an obstacle in the pathway of country’s socio-economic development. Against this backdrop, the present study is an endeavour to evaluate the overall prevalence of under-nutrition among the school children (Government and private) using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) ofNorth 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India. A total of330 children (164 boys and 166 girls), aged 3 to 8 years were selected from both the schools. The children were classified as under - weight, stunting and wasting if their weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height Z-scores were below -2SD (WHO, 2006). The results of the study revealed that the prevalence of under-weight, stunting and wasting (age and sex combined) was high (20.60%, 13.30%, and 33.30%) among the Government school children when compared with the children of the private school (14.50%, 6.10%, 17.60%). CIAF showed a higher prevalence of under-nutrition (44.81%) among the children of Government school compared to the children private school (26.70%). Moreover, the children also experienced multiple anthropometric failures. Thus, by disintegrating the undernourished children into different groups helps to identify children who are vulnerable and also proves to be worthy to identify the children suffering from single or multiple anthropometric failures. Various nutritional programmes are required to improve the overall nutritional status of the children. Nevertheless, the present study provides an open platform for further researches and instigates the policy makers to take necessary action as and when required. © 2019 Moravian Museum, Anthropos Institute, Brno. All rights reserved.