The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of pesticidal residues on soil microbial and biochemical parameters of the tea garden soils. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal (BSR) and substrate induced respirations (SIR), β-glucosidase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity (FDHA) of six tea garden soils, along with two adjacent forest soils (control) in West Bengal, India were measured. The biomass and its activities and biochemical parameters were generally lower in the tea garden soils than the control soils. The MBC of the soils ranged from 295.5 to 767.5 μg g- 1. The BSR and SIR ranged from 1.65 to 3.08 μg CO2-C g- 1 soil h- 1 and 3.08 to 10.76 μg CO2-C g- 1h- 1 respectively. The β-glucosidase and FDHA of the soils varied from 33.3 and 76.3 μg para-nitrophenol g- 1 soil h- 1 and 60.5 to 173.5 μg fluorescein g- 1h- 1respectively. The tea garden soils contained variable residues of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides, which negatively affected the MBC, BSR, SIR, FDHA and β-glucosidase activity. Ethion and chlorpyriphos pesticide residues in all the tea garden soils varied from 5.00 to 527.8 ppb and 17.6 to 478.1 ppb respectively. The α endosulfan, β endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate pesticide residues in the tea garden soils ranged from 7.40 to 81.40 ppb, 8.50 to 256.1 ppb and 55 to 95.9 ppb respectively. Canonical correlation analysis shows that 93% of the total variation was associated with the negative impact of chlorpyriphos, β and α endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate on MBC, BSR and FDHA. At the same time ethion had negative impact on SIR and β-glucosidase. Data demonstrated that the pesticide residues had a strong impact on the microbial and biochemical components of soil quality. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.