The present study examined the in vitro antioxidant activity of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (9cis, 11 trans, 13 trans-18:3), α-eleostearic acid present in karela seed oil (Momordica charantia) at about 55% level. The in vitro antioxidant properties of α-eleostearic acid are investigated on oxidative modification of human plasma, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and erythrocyte membrane lipid. Blood samples are collected from diabetic and non-diabetic (normal) healthy individuals, α-eleostearic acid is added at 0.05% and 0.1% concentrations to plasma, LDL and erythrocyte membrane isolated from the respective blood samples and peroxidations are determined against control samples. A significant increase of respective peroxidation levels has been observed in diabetic control blood than the non-diabetic control blood, α-eleostearic acid has decreased lipid peroxidation level against control samples in a dose dependent manner. The present findings suggest that CLnA, 9cis, 11trans, 13trans-18:3 is a potentially effective antioxidant that can protect plasma, low density lipoprotein and erythrocyte membrane from oxidation which may be effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in diabetes mellitus. © 2007, Japan Oil Chemists' Society. All rights reserved.