Earlier, a protein (BMP1, MW-79kDa) had been isolated from Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus) skin aqueous extract possessed anticancer activity against EAC bearing mice (Bhattacharjee et al., 2011). In the present study, the anti-proliferative and apoptogenic activities of BMP1 have been evaluated in leukemic (U937 and K562) and hepatoma (HepG2) cells. BMP1 dose dependently inhibited U937 and K562 cell growth having IC 50 values of 49 μg/ml and 30 μg/ml respectively. The anti-proliferative activity of BMP1 was observed in MTT assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and cell cycle arrest study. Flow-cytometric data revealed that BMP1 arrested cell cycle in U937 and K562 cells at Sub-G1 and G1 phases. The BMP1-induced dose dependent expressions of CDKIs (p21 cip1 and p27 kip1 ) and inhibition of CDK2 and PCNA expression in HepG2 cells support the inhibition of cell proliferation due to G1 arrest. BMP1-induced apoptosis analyzed by annexin-V binding study and the DNA fragmentation by comet assay were correlated with the sub-G1 arrest. The parallel induction of bax and p53 expression in HepG2 cells and the up-regulation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 due to BMP1 treatment indicated the involvement of p53-dependent intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. BMP1 was found to be low immunogenic in nature. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.