This study was undertaken among 100 randomly selected bus conductors from 2 routes. A questionnaire study based on the modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, assessment of physical and physiological parameters, analysis of working postures and a detailed work study were performed. The analysis revealed that conductors had a work schedule of 16–18 h each day; the duration of work could vary from 15 to 20 days at a stretch. Discomfort leading to musculoskeletal disorders mainly affecting the leg (93.3%), knee (83.3%), shoulder (80%) and back areas (56.7%) had the highest 12-month prevalence rates and increased day by day. The conductors also suffered from extreme physiological stress due to prolonged working hours in hazardous standing posture conditions, excessive work pressure and minimum rest between trips. Consequently, all those factors affected their health and work performance. © 2012, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.